Full Name  Iwan A.T. Schaap
Phone +44 (0)131 451 4145
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Website www.iwanschaap.com

2.03 Earl Mountbatten Building
Heriot-Watt University
EH14 4AS
United Kingdom



Iwan uses force spectroscopy methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical trapping to investigate the structure-function relationship of biomaterials; how do mechanics control biological function? Viruses for example are very robust when they travel between host organisms but once they enter a target cell they undergo structural changes that eventually allow them to open up to release their genetic material. To measure their mechanical response, samples are deformed on a sub-micrometer length-scale. Depending on the composition of the material either an elastic response (regular protein assemblies like viruses) is expected, or a more complex visco-elastic behaviour that depends on both the time- and length-scale of the deformation experiment (heterogeneous structures like cells). Iwan employs finite element analysis to model the experiments in order to extract the intrinsic mechanical parameters of the tested materials.

Iwan AFM


Some relevant publications:

  • A. Ortega-Esteban, K. Bodensiek, C. San Martín, M. Suomalainen, U.F. Greber, P.J. de Pablo, I.A.T. Schaap (2015) Fluorescence tracking of genome release during the mechanical unpacking of single viruses. ACS Nano. 9, 10571-10579.
  • P.N. Dannhauser, M. Platen, H. Böning, I.A.T. Schaap (2015) Durable protein lattices of clathrin that can be functionalized with nano-particles and active bio-molecules. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 954-957.
  • S. Nawaz, P. Sánchez, S. Schmitt, N. Snaidero, M. Mitkovski, C. Velte, B.R. Brückner, T. Czopka, S. Jung, J.S. Rhee. A. Janshoff, W. Witke, I.A.T. Schaap, D. Lyons, M. Simons (2015) Actin filament turnover drives leading edge growth during myelin sheath formation in the central nervous system. Dev. Cell. 34, 139-151.
  • S. Lakämper, A. Lamprecht, I.A.T. Schaap, J. Dual (2015) Direct 2D-measurement of time-averaged forces and pressure amplitudes in acoustophoretic devices using optical trapping. Lab Chip. 15, 290-300.
  • S. Li, C. Sieben, K. Ludwig, C.T. Höfer, S. Chiantia, A. Herrmann, F. Eghiaian, I.A.T. Schaap (2014) pH-controlled two-step uncoating of influenza virus. Biophys. J. 106, 1447-1456.
  • S. Nawaz, P. Sánchez, K. Bodensiek, S. Li, M. Simons, I.A.T. Schaap (2012) Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations. PLOS ONE 7, e45297.
  • I.A.T. Schaap, C. Carrasco, P.J. de Pablo, C.F. Schmidt (2011) Kinesin walks the line: single motors observed by atomic force microscopy. Biophys. J. 100, 2450-2456.
  • I.A.T. Schaap, C. Carrasco, P.J. de Pablo, F.C. MacKintosh, C.F. Schmidt (2006) Elastic response, buckling and instability of microtubules under radial indentation. Biophys. J. 91, 1521-1531.70